FEMA IS 326: Community Tsunami Preparedness Answers
1. The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is typically activated by the National Weather Service for which tsunami alert:
B. High Seas Statements
C. Information Statements
2. A tsunami is:
A. A huge curling wave that can only be surfed by experts
B. A rapid increase in water level due to extremely high tides combined with heavy precipitation
C. A single wave that arrives at the beach traveling at the speed of a jet plane
D. A series of waves in which the largest one may come after the first wave
3. Strong earthquakes cause most tsunamis because they:
A. Shake the water more violently, causing larger waves
B. Displace more sea floor, which moves more water
4. If a community has tsunami warning sirens, other communication methods will not be necessary.
5. Tsunami waves often flow inland for several minutes, resulting in flooding that continues longer than that caused by storm surge.
6. A Tsunami Response Plan should include training and education activities, as well as disaster management tactics.
7. Which Tsunami Warning Center issues tsunami alerts for the Gulf or Atlantic Coasts or in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands?
A. Pacific Tsunami Warning Center
B. Joint Atlantic/Caribbean Tsunami Warning Center
C. West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center
D. North American Tsunami Warning Center
8. The energy of tsunami waves is distributed throughout the water column, while that of wind waves is only in the top few hundred feet (hundred meters) of the ocean.
9. Tsunami forecasts may not be 100% accurate due mainly to a lack of data, especially soon after an event. This means an emergency manager should:
A. Be on alert but wait until the Tsunami Warning Center sends a confirmation message
B. Expect waves that are at least the forecast height and take appropriate precautions
C. Plan for waves with heights half of what is forecast
D. Not take action until tide gages register increased activity
10. The U.S. East Coast:
A. Could experience tsunamis from distant sources
B. Will not have tsunamis unless they are caused by landslides or volcanoes
C. Is safe from tsunamis because it is not in a seismically active zone
D. Has no history or geological evidence of past tsunamis
11. If a teletsunami is coming in about 4 hours, would an emergency manager recommend that boat owners leave the harbor?
A. No, boats are safer in the harbor than out in the open ocean
B. Yes, as long as boats can get out safely to deep water
12. Communities that experience a damaging tsunami should expect to address problems related to post-traumatic stress disorder.
13. Once the first tsunami wave comes ashore, you can expect subsequent waves to be the same size or smaller.
14. During a disaster people may not react immediately to a tsunami warning until they have confirmation from others that they should do so.
15. While the Caribbean is at risk from tsunamis due to earthquakes in the seismically active zones, submarine landslides are unlikely to occur.
16. An Information Statement issued by the Tsunami Warning Centers:
A. Indicates that a tsunami has been generated but is not expected to cause damage
B. Alerts people that an earthquake has occurred but sea level data has not yet confirmed whether a tsunami has happened
C. Precedes a Tsunami Watch, Warning, or Advisory message
D. Is issued when an earthquake has occurred but a destructive tsunami is not expected
17. Early in a potential tsunami event, the Tsunami Warning Centers use pre-computed model runs to forecast tsunami wave heights based on hypothetical earthquakes.
18. On the U.S. West Coast, the largest tsunami threat is likely to be triggered by: (Choose best answer)
A. A large earthquake off the coast of Japan
B. An earthquake in the San Andreas Fault
C. A volcanic eruption near Hawaii
D. An earthquake in the Cascadia subduction zone
19. The cancellation of a Tsunami Warning means:
A. Widespread inundation is no longer expected, but the emergency manager should consider local conditions before issuing the All-Clear
B. The earthquake probably occurred on land rather than under the ocean
C. The Director of the Tsunami Warning Center has issued the All-Clear
D. The area is now under a Tsunami Watch
20. One of the main differences between a near-field tsunami and a far-field one is:
A. Near-field tsunamis are usually caused by weaker earthquakes
B. The Tsunami Warning Centers will probably not have time to issue warnings for the first wave(s) of a near-field tsunami
C. Near-field tsunamis have a lower wave height
D. Only Advisory messages are sent by the Tsunami Warning Centers for near-field tsunamis
21. A tsunami wave that is 2 feet (0.6 meters) is considered minor, so beaches, oceans, and harbors will be safe for the public.
22. The TsunamiReady Program
A. Is the name given to the overall warning system managed by the Tsunami Warning Centers
B. Recognizes communities that follow certain guidelines to improve tsunami safety and awareness
C. Helps communities build seawalls to prevent tsunami inundation
D. Is a PowerPoint presentation emergency managers can use to educate citizens
23. Earthquakes less than 7.0 magnitude cannot generate tsunamis.
24. Which event would NOT be a sign that a tsunami was about to occur:
A. Water levels rose suddenly
B. A rainstorm lasted for an unusually long time
C. Large areas of the seabed were exposed
D. The water looked unusually turbulent and you heard a roaring noise
25. Tsunamis and wind waves differ, in part, in that the time between two tsunami waves can be many minutes or hours, while wind waves are usually only several seconds apart
26. Good warning messages for the public should:
A. Should avoid talking about possible consequences so people don’t panic
B. Explain the possible consequences if the instructions are not followed
27. A Tsunami Warning means:
A. A tsunami has occurred but will not arrive for several hours
B. Strong currents are possible but significant inundation is not expected
C. Significant inundation is expected
D. A tsunami is not expected
28. The Tsunami Warning Centers issue forecasts of wave amplitude, which is:
A. One-half the height measured from the crest of the wave to the trough
B. A measure of the force of the tsunami
C. The height measured from the crest of the wave to the trough
D. Twice the height measured from the crest of the wave to the trough1
29. What is a far-field tsunami?
A. A tsunami triggered by a strong earthquake far inland from the coast
B. A tsunami generated by a strong earthquake in one part of an ocean basin that travels to distant locations
C. A tsunami that has been registered by sensors in the deep ocean
D. A tsunami that produces a run-up that extends past the expected inundation zone
30. Earthquakes off the Alaskan coast cannot trigger teletsunamis (distant-source tsunamis) because of the shape of the Gulf of Alaska.
31. If the Tsunami Warning Center issues a Tsunami Advisory, should the emergency manager close beaches and evacuate harbors?
A. Yes, because currents and waves can be dangerous
B. No, because an Advisory means an earthquake has occurred but a tsunami has not been generated.
32. Tsunamis are most often caused by:
A. Strong earthquakes that occur under the ocean
B. Undersea volcanoes
C. Land-based earthquakes land that are magnitude 7 or higher
D. Glaciers calving
33. The one thing not usually covered in a Tsunami Response Plan is:
A. Future mitigation plans, such as building code changes
B. Procedures for documenting disaster costs
C. How to call in staff in an emergency
D. Training procedures
34. If water at the coast is behaving abnormally or a strong earthquake has occurred locally, the first thing an emergency manager should do is:
A. Be on alert for an official Tsunami Warning Center message
B. Evacuate the beaches
C. Call the Tsunami Warning Center to ask if a tsunami has been generated
D. Send boats to deeper water
35. In a near-field tsunami, emergency responders should assemble in the inundation zone immediately so they can direct the evacuation.
36. If a strong earthquake occurs, it is unnecessary to leave the beach until a tsunami is seen coming because most people can outrun the waves.
37. In addition to earthquakes, tsunamis can be caused by:
A. Strong winds
B. Climate change
C. High tides
D. Submarine landslides
38. Hawaii and other areas in the Pacific have a high to very high risk of tsunamis because of the relatively large number of earthquakes and volcanoes in the area.
39. In the event of a near-field tsunami, it is generally recommended that the public evacuate immediately using their cars or mass transportation.
40. Tsunami models run at the Tsunami Warning Centers help predict wave amplitudes and when the waves might arrive at different locations.