Lesson 1: Management Responsibilities for Workplace Safety
Lesson Overview

This lesson focuses on management’s responsibility for workplace safety and protection of human health. You will learn about your employees’ rights to a workplace free from recognized hazards and your role in providing that safe workplace while promoting a health and safety culture within the agency.

Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify the purpose of the Presidential Initiative and how it affects your agency
  • Identify the responsibilities of the Safety, Health and Medical Readiness (SHMR) Division

Audio Transcript

This lesson is designed to provide you the FEMA manager, regardless of position, with internal safety and health information that is essential to ensure that FEMA provides a safe and healthy work environment for the public as well as all employees, regardless of their employer or their location within FEMA’s sphere of influence.

Presidential Executive Order 12196, “Occupational Safety and Health Programs for Federal Employees,” states that safety and health programs throughout the Executive Branch must be developed, universally accepted, and adhered to.

Each FEMA Administrator is required to provide for and fund a program area to oversee internal safety and health progress and report out regarding the state of safety and health matters within all areas in the agency’s span of control.

To oversee the internal safety and health progress, each FEMA Administrator designates an Executive-level senior staff member with sufficient authority to be responsible for the internal safety and health administrative program oversight and to provide direction to the Director of the Safety, Health and Medical Readiness Division (SHMR).

This senior-level member is assigned the title of Designated Safety and Health Officer (DSHO). The Director of SHMR reports directly to the DSHO.

Senior Management Safety and Health Training Requirement

So why should you take this training? Not only will it help you provide a safe and healthy workplace; it is also required by law!

According to the health and safety standards set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), under Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1960 – Basic Program Elements for Federal Employees OSHA:

Each Federal agency is required to provide top management officials with orientation and other learning experiences which train them to manage the occupational safety and health programs of their agencies.

Such orientation should include training on:

You will learn more about these laws and standards in Lesson 3– Safety and Health Orders, Regulations, Policies and Directives.

Management Safety and Health Responsibilities, cont’d.

Specifically, managers, supervisors, or designated management representatives are required to:
Click on this link to view the Federal Agency OSHA poster.

Impact of Workplace Accidents

Workplace accidents have enormous emotional and physical impact on victims and co-workers. Besides the emotional impact, the costs associated with accidents are often thought to be covered entirely by insurance. The government, being self insured, has to bear the costs associated with accidents. This, in turn can negatively impact the funding for FEMA’s operating budget.

You tend to forget about indirect costs associated with workplace accidents. Click on each link below to learn more about these indirect costs:

Click on this link to view the text version of the information on indirect costs.

Agency Burden

  • Decreased production
  • Failure to meet timelines
  • Damaged equipment
  • Increased administrative cost
  • Increased payroll

Human Toll

  • Distracted labor force
  • Diminished morale
  • Physical injury
  • Increased stress
  • Financial burden

Management Accountability through Presidential Initiative(s)

Building on the basis of and expanding the Safety, Health and Return to Employment (SHARE) Initiative signed by President Bush in 2004, the Protecting Our Workers and Ensuring Reemployment (POWER) Initiative was signed by President Obama in 2010. Covering fiscal years 2011–2014, its aim is to improve workplace safety and health, reduce the financial burden of injury on taxpayers, and relieve unnecessary suffering by workers and their families. It expects agencies to collect and analyze data on the causes and consequences of frequent or severe injury and illness in the Federal workplace and prioritize safety and health management programs that have proven effective in the past.

Presidential Initiative Goals

Each Department within the Executive Branch (e.g. Department of Homeland Security) expects their managers and supervisors to improve its performance in the following seven areas:
  • Reducing total injury and illness case rates
  • Reducing lost-time injury and illness case rates
  • Analyzing lost-time injury and illness data
  • Increasing the timely filing of workers’ compensation claims
  • Increasing the timely filing of wage-loss claims
  • Reducing lost production day rates
  • Speeding employees’ return to work in cases of serious injury or illness
Click on this link to view your department and agency’s progress in meeting the Presidential Initiative goals.

Safety, Health and Medical Readiness (SHMR) Division

SHMR serves as an internal resource for your safety officials, including Disaster Safety Officer (DSO), Collateral Duty Safety Officer (CDSO), and safety professionals. SHMR provides technical expertise, guidance and oversight to ensure you and your safety official have the tools needed to implement a successful local safety program. SHMR serves as FEMA’s subject matter expert (SME) in all aspects of occupational safety and health.

SHMR responsibilities include:

  • Providing guidance and oversight for all agency safety and health concerns
  • Providing technical training to all designated Agency Safety Officials
  • Serving as the agency’s principal occupational safety and health advisor
  • Interpreting and relaying technical information regarding regulations, standards and codes, and subsequently disseminating the statutory requirements appropriately
  • Overseeing an effective and comprehensive agency-wide occupational safety and health program
  • Developing and publishing safety and health programs and policies
  • Conducting internal evaluations to determine effectiveness and, if necessary, corrective actions
  • Coordinating interagency occupational safety and health communications and recommendations
  • Ensuring that all reports of unsafe and unhealthful conditions and/or workplace accidents are investigated and, when appropriate, that corrective actions are taken
  • Evaluating employees’ medical readiness
  • Providing responses to the Departmental Safety and Health Office regarding FEMA’s Safety and Health Program status.

SHMR Division Safety Training

SHMR Division is responsible for providing the tools and training necessary for FEMA to maintain safe and healthy work places, including disaster operation sites. These tools and training include:
  • Compliance with work place safety and health regulations and policies for Senior FEMA management officials
  • Training for safety officials
  • Occupational safety and health training for every employee
  • Specific training on topics such as respiratory protection, bloodborne pathogens, and medical response for employees as needed

SHMR Division Composition

The SHMR Division is comprised of two branches. Click on each link below to learn more about the relevant branch:
Click on this link to view the text version of the information on each SHMR Division branch.

Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Branch

This Branch provides subject matter expertise to support the anticipation, recognition and control of environmental health and safety hazards at all FEMA operations and affected communities. The FEMA Occupationall Health and Safety (OHS) Branch develops sustainable and integrated, Agency-wide Occupational Health and Safety programs and initiatives. Additionally, OHS serves as the Agency’s environmental health and safety oversight representative and technical advisor for issues including industrial hygiene, life safety, occupational safety, whole community, responder guidance coordination, and Agency planning.

Disaster Safety Operations Branch

This branch is responsible for providing Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) and Health and Medical Readiness programs and policies. Additionally, the branch is responsible for hiring, deploying, training, and providing administrative instruction to Disaster Safety Officers who serve as safety and health subject matter experts on the Federal Coordinating Officer’s command staff.

Agency-wide Safety and Health Program Implementation

With the myriad of internal resources available to assist in occupational safety and health, the following methods can prove to be useful to develop an effective occupational safety and health program at your location/operation:
  • Show direct open interest in the direction of the safety and health program
  • Set and communicate clear safety and health values and expectations for those under your span of control
  • Hold managers accountable for the safety and health responsibilities associated with their assignment
  • Foster at all levels a culture of integrity and responsibility for all employees’ safety and health
  • Ensure knowledge, training, and safe working methods/conditions
  • Involve all employees in the agency/localized safety and health program. This will ensure that the issue of safety and health becomes everyone’s business
  • Involve your local safety official
Click on this link to view the “Leadership Checklist” for an effective agency-wide safety and health program implementation.

Click on this link to view the “Choices Leading to an Ineffective Safety and Health Program.”

Health and Safety Leadership Checklist

This list is designed to check your status as a leader on health and safety. Contact the professionals at SHMR for advice and tools that may help you answer these questions.
  • How do you demonstrate your commitment to health and safety?
  • What do you ensure appropriate corrective actions are initiated regarding health and safety concerns?
  • What have you done to ensure your reporting group, at all levels, receives competent professional safety and health training?
  • How are you ensuring that all staff employees are sufficiently trained and competent to engage in their health and safety team related responsibilities?
  • How confident are you that your assigned safety representative is properly trained on health and safety matters?
  • Does your assigned safety representative/professional have the authority to effect change when determined to be necessary?
  • What systems are in place to ensure your organizational risks are assessed and that sensible preventative measures are established and being maintained?
  • Are you aware of what is happening on the ground, and if safety and health audits or assessments are undertaken to inform you about how your employees and contractors actually work?
  • What information do you receive regularly about health and safety – e.g. injuries sustained, broken equipment and danger related concerns that are known?
  • What targets have you set to improve health and safety and do you benchmark your performance against others in your program area or division?
  • Where do current working arrangements have significant implications for health and safety, and how are these concerns brought to the attention of upper level managers?

Supervisory Choices That Lead To an Ineffective Program

  • Avoiding the financial/resource/personnel commitment necessary to ensure that agency assets, personnel and materials, are adequately protected;
  • Failure, regardless of level, to exercise local control;
  • Rubber stamping management decisions, regardless of consequences, that negatively impact employees’ safety and health;
  • Failure to request competent professional safety and health guidance, if necessary, from SHMR when concerned about internal or external based concerns effecting FEMA directed employees;
  • Choosing not to follow published standards/policies/directives and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP).

Audio Transcript

John, one of our enthusiastic reservists, decided he could climb up the front of a travel trailer to get an identification number off the roof. In his haste, he chose to stand on the hitch and pull himself up onto the roof instead of getting a ladder. Unfortunately, he slipped and fell. John’s efforts resulted in two broken ribs, an ambulance ride, medical costs, and his being sent home. The agency incurred a Workers’ Compensation claim, the loss of productivity from two coworkers who helped him get to the hospital (and later to his vehicle), and the loss of a trained reservist who had to be replaced on short notice, plus the resulting pile of paperwork.

Lesson Summary

You reviewed management’s responsibility for workplace safety and protection of human health in this lesson. You learned about your employees’ right to a workplace free from recognized hazards and your role in providing that safe workplace while promoting a health and safety culture within the agency.

You should now be able to:

  • Identify the purpose of a Presidential Initiative and how it affects your agency
  • Identify the responsibilities of Safety, Health and Medical Readiness (SHMR) Division
The next lesson, which is intended for Federal Coordinating Officers, focuses on the unique challenges associated with providing for workplace safety and the protection of human health in an ever-changing environment.

Lesson 2: Federal Coordinating Officer Responsibilities
Lesson Overview

This lesson focuses on the responsibilities of the Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO) for ensuring safe and healthy work environments for FEMA resources deployed at a disaster site.

Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify the FCO’s responsibilities for ensuring safe and healthy work environments and promoting a safety-based culture for FEMA resources deployed at a disaster site.
  • List the resources available to you to ensure that your organization has an effective safety and health program.
  • Identify the assigned Disaster Safety Officer’s duties.

Lesson 2 Introduction – Audio Transcript

This lesson is directed toward a Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO) who is appointed by the President and operates under the authority of the Administrator of FEMA. As the senior FEMA manager with assigned responsibilities to manage Federal resources within a specific declared disaster, the FCO must support, promote, and provide for working environments that are as safe and healthy as circumstances permit.

Provisions are included within the FEMA Incident Command System (ICS) to provide for a Command Staff Officer, the Safety Officer, who has the assigned responsibility to act as the localized expert regarding safety and health program management.

The FEMA Disaster Safety Officer (DSO) is assigned to specific disasters and subsequently provided with technical guidance and support by the FEMA Safety, Health and Medical Readiness (SHMR) Division. In the absence of an assigned DSO, the appointed FCO is personally responsible to ensure compliance with all mandatory regulations regarding workplace safety and health program management.

Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO)— Safety and Health Responsibilities

If you are an FCO, YOU are responsible for the safety and health of all FEMA employees, full-time, part-time and CORE, as well as FEMA Reservists working at your site.

FCOs must:

  • Ensure that members of the FEMA/SHMR/FQS Certified Disaster Safety Officer (DSO) Cadre are promptly requested, to ensure continuity of operation and the thoroughness of the safety and health program. Click this link to read the reference for requesting the DSO.
  • Ensure that the delegation of responsibility for the DSO must not be transferred or relocated to subordinates. Administrative day-to-day operations are within the purview of the FCO; however, the DSO will receive technical-based directions from SHMR headquarters management officials. Click this link to read the reference for delegation of responsibility for the DSO.
  • Review and sign hazard assessments.
  • Ensure the implementation and management of the disaster safety and health programs within their assigned disaster.
  • Ensure organization-wide compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations regarding public and occupational safety and health.
  • Ensure that the DSO is placed appropriately within the command staff structure and provided with sufficient authority. Click this link to read the reference for DSO placement.
  • Ensure that disaster workplaces are inspected and accepted by a qualified and authorized DSO prior to occupancy. Click this link to read the reference for workplace inspections.
  • Ensure that the DSO receives all information so the DSO may make an informed occupancy decision.
Click on the Toolkit button at the top of the screen at any time during the course to view, save, and/or print the entire 066-3-1 document, the FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Program Manual.

Reference for requesting the DSO

FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Program Manual 066-3-1 Chapter 9 “FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Disaster Cadre” Section 3 “Federal Coordinating Officer” Part a:

“In accordance with FEMA Instruction 066-3-1, the Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO) shall ensure that:

  • Members of the FEMA OSH Disaster Cadre are promptly and properly requested, deployed, and placed on the Command Staff at the scene of a Presidentially declared disaster”

Reference for delegation of responsibility for the DSO

Reference #1

FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Program Manual 066-3-1 Chapter 9 “FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Disaster Cadre” Section 3 “Federal Coordinating Officer” Part a:

NOTE: A FEMA employee at a Presidentially declared disaster, who conducts OSH duties and responsibilities outlined in this chapter, must be an active member in good standing of the FEMA OSH Disaster Cadre and/or has received approval to conduct these OSH activities from the FEMA DASHO and/or the FEMA Safety Director or FEMA Deputy Safety Director.”

Reference #2

FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Program Manual 066-3-1 Chapter 9 “FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Disaster Cadre” Section 4 “FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Officials” Part b:

“FEMA OSH Officials who are deployed to a Presidentially declared disaster shall be administratively under the direct command of the Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO). All directions concerning specific OSH duties and responsibilities at a Presidentially declared disaster shall come directly from the FEMA DASHO and/or the FEMA OSH Disaster Cadre Managers.”

Reference for DSO placement

FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Program Manual 066-3-1  Chapter 9 “FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Disaster Cadre” Section 4 “FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Officials.” Part a (3)c:

“When FEMA OSH officials are deployed to a Presidentially declared disaster they shall be assigned to the Command Staff”

Reference for workplace inspections

FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Program Manual 066-3-1  Chapter 9 “FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Disaster Cadre” Section 4 Part f:

“FEMA OSH officials deployed to a Presidentially declared disaster shall be required to perform the following OSH duties and responsibilities:

  1. Occupational Safety and Health Inspections. All buildings and/or structures that are to be used by FEMA employees shall receive an OSH inspection (preferably prior to use). OSH inspections shall be thoroughly documented and made part of the disaster OSH records.”

Safety and Health Activity Delegation

The FCO should stay aware of safety and health activities; however, under the ICS, the Safety Officer is a required technical advisor and is placed under the authority of the FCO as command staff. The FCO should never transfer or delegate the responsibility of the DSO to a subordinate. Some other actions are:
Click on each link above to learn more about delegating safety and health activities to a DSO.

Click on this link to view the text version of the information on delegating safety and health activities to a DSO.

Ensure that a DSO has been requested for your disaster

Trying to do everything and keeping aware of your surroundings is a daunting task. The Safety, Health, and Medical Readiness Division’s (SHMR’s) Disaster Safety Operations Branch (DSOB) provides qualified DSOs to ensure compliance with regulations as well as recordkeeping requirements, accident investigation, and hazard reduction. Assigning a DSO ensures that you can execute your responsibilities and receive advice and actions to take for regulatory compliance.

Ensure that the DSO is provided with authority to be successful

If you are the FCO, the safety and health of FEMA resources is ultimately your responsibility. The DSO is charged with providing technical guidance to ensure that regulatory concerns are addressed and that the health and safety of your staff are monitored and provided for. The DSO has access to FEMA safety and health subject matter experts (SMEs) within SHMR.

Lapses in the DSO’s authority can affect the safety and health performance of the FEMA disaster team. Therefore, it is important to understand that once the DSO or safety representative is released from the site, sole responsibility for all safety and health matters on your site resides with you.

DSO Responsibilities

The assigned DSO must:
  • Actively participate in the development of the disaster’s Incident Action Plan (IAP), evaluating the proposed tasks to determine safety risks, recommending risk abatement or mitigation as appropriate.
  • Perform hazard assessments to identify and address potential hazards employees may encounter.
  • Identify and coordinate abatement of hazards that may be encountered at a disaster or exercise site.
  • Provide for basic safety and health training and information for all deployed personnel.
  • Implement a system to report, investigate, archive, and recommend remediation for accidents, injuries, and illnesses related to the disaster or the exercise.
  • Provide written evaluations, hazard assessments, after-action reports, and exit reports on the disaster safety and health activities.
  • Exercise emergency authority to eliminate imminent dangers.
  • When directed, collaborate in the formation of an Interagency Health and Safety Coordinating Committee consisting of participating agency safety officers, to meet as required to enhance the overall safety and health of all deployed personnel.
  • Evaluate compliance with all applicable Occupational Safety and Health standards/regulations and policies.
  • Assist in the development of required safety plans and programs.
  • Serve as the local technical advisor/SME on safety and health matters.
  • Report administratively to the localized FCO and report technically to SHMR’s DSO Safety Cadre Manager. Click this link to view the reference for DSO reporting.
Click on the Toolkit button at the top of the screen at any time during the course to view, save, and/or print the entire 066-3-1 document, the FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Program Manual.

Reference for requesting the DSO

FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Program Manual 066-3-1 Chapter 9 “FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Disaster Cadre” Section 4 “FEMA Occupational Safety and Health Officials” Part b:

“FEMA OSH Officials who are deployed to a Presidentially declared disaster shall be administratively under the direct command of the Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO). All directions concerning specific OSH duties and responsibilities at a Presidentially declared disaster shall come directly from the FEMA DASHO and/or the FEMA OSH Disaster Cadre Managers.”

FCO Safety and Health Responsibilities Checklist

This list is designed to check your understanding of the FCO’s responsibilities associated with the assignment and empowerment of a DSO. Contact the SMEs at SHMR’s Disaster Safety Operations Branch for additional information or tools that may help you fully understand the importance of these questions.

Remember, the DSO and other SMEs within FEMA SHMR are resources available to the FCO to help ensure that your organization has an effective safety and health program.

  • How do you determine whether you will request a DSO at your assigned disaster?
  • What do you do to ensure that the DSO assigned to the disaster is provided with the authority to fulfill his/her safety and health obligations?
  • Do you give your DSO an opportunity to talk/report during a Command Staff briefing?
  • Do you empower your DSO to ensure that all staff employees are sufficiently trained and competent to engage in their health- and safety-team-related responsibilities?
  • How confident are you that your assigned DSO is properly trained on health and safety matters?
  • Does your assigned DSO have the authority to effect change when an operation is determined to be an imminent danger?

FCO Safety and Health Responsibilities Checklist, cont’d.

  • Are you aware of what is happening on the ground, and whether safety and health audits or assessments are undertaken to inform you about how your employees and contractors actually work? If not to you, to whom is it reported?
  • What information do you receive regularly about health and safety (e.g., injuries sustained, broken equipment) and danger-related concerns that are known? If not to you, to whom is it reported?
  • What targets have you set to improve health and safety and do you benchmark your performance against others’ disaster operations?
  • Where changes in working conditions have significant negative implications for health and safety, how are these brought to the attention of managers and appropriate Command Staff members?
  • To whom do you assign the safety responsibilities when you release the last DSO from your assigned disaster? Is the person you assigned professionally competent to perform the duties and to report, as required, to SHMR?

Personal Protective Equipment Usage

At a disaster, the DSO or HQ SHMR Safety Official may determine that employees must wear personal protective equipment (PPE) when performing certain jobs or tasks. It is important to understand that the wrong PPE, or PPE used incorrectly, can cause more harm than good. Click on each link below to learn about some precautions to take before and during PPE use:

Before using PPE

Before using the PPE:
  • Disaster responders must be properly trained and medically cleared to wear some forms of PPE.
  • Field supervisors must contact the DSO to determine whether PPE is indicated and whether adequate precautions have been taken to ensure the safe use of PPE.

While using PPE

When using the PPE, employees must:
  • Use the right equipment for the job, as advised by the DSO.
  • Inspect PPE before every use and make sure it fits.
  • Follow the manufacturer’s instructions provided in training.
  • Clean and store equipment properly.
  • Always wear PPE in required areas, even if only passing through.

Remember this difference

Note that PPE (e.g., ear protection devices, respirators, safety glasses, etc.) must not be confused with Personal Protective Clothing (e.g., aprons, clothing, and hats).

Voices of Experience – Audio Transcript

[Laura] I am a reservist working for FEMA. When a hurricane devastated a town in our state, we got deployed to the disaster site. We worked 12-hour days and rotated shifts, seven days a week. While the working conditions were terrible, our safety officer worked with our supervisor to ensure that we were provided and trained in the use of the required Personal Protective Equipment. Even though we worked long hours in difficult conditions, the disaster safety officer ensured that we worked safely. Ultimately, we felt satisfied that we brought aid, relief, and comfort to those affected by the hurricane.

Lesson Summary

This lesson covered the FCO’s responsibilities for ensuring safe and healthy work environments for FEMA resources deployed at a disaster site.

You should now be able to:

  • Identify the FCO’s responsibilities for ensuring safe and healthy work environments and promoting a safety-based culture for FEMA resources deployed at a disaster site
  • List the resources available to you to ensure that your organization has an effective safety and health program.
  • Identify the assigned Disaster Safety Officer’s duties
The next lesson will focus on the understanding of Executive Orders, legislative standards and regulations, internal directives, and policies that govern FEMA’s workplace safety and health program.

Lesson 3: Safety and Health Orders, Regulations, Policies and Directives
Lesson Overview

This lesson focuses on the understanding of Executive Orders, legislative standards and regulations, internal directives and policies that govern FEMA’s workplace safety and health program. You will also learn about the role of the Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in workplace health and safety on FEMA work sites.

Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify the applicable laws, regulations, and policies governing FEMA’s workplace safety and health
  • Describe the procedures that a manager, supervisor or designated management representative must follow in the event of an OSHA compliance inspection

Introduction Video Transcript

This lesson provides access to and promotes the understanding of Executive Orders, legislative standards and regulations, internal directives and policies that govern the management of FEMA’s safety and health program.

To achieve a successful program it is necessary for managers, supervisors or designated management representatives to ensure compliance with these requirements and understand the reasons for them.

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, also called the OSH Act, provides the basis for workplace health and safety. This Act is codified in the Department of Labor rules under Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).

The OSH Act assigns two main functions to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): setting standards for workplace health and safety and conducting workplace inspections to ensure that employers are complying with the standards, providing a safe and healthful workplace to employees.

29 CFR Section 1960 contains provisions ensuring safe and healthy working conditions for Federal-sector employees. It is this section of the code that holds each Federal Agency responsible for establishing and maintaining an effective and comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Program for Federal employees.

In 1980, Presidential Executive Order 12196 was issued and prescribed responsibilities for the heads of Federal agencies. Although Agencies must operate their own safety and health programs in accordance with certain basic program elements specified by the Secretary of Labor, Agency heads have the flexibility to implement their programs in a manner consistent with their mission, size, and organization.

FEMA has established an Agency health and safety program that meets the requirements of Executive Order 12196, the basic program elements set forth in 29 CFR Part 1960, and OSHA standards for workplace safety and health.

FEMA’s safety and health program is governed by the following directives in a top-down structure:

  • Executive Order or Memorandum
  • Legislation
  • Department of Homeland Security Manual/Directive/Policy
  • FEMA Manual/Directive/Policy

Safety and Health Requirements for Managers, Supervisors and Designated Management Representatives

As a representative of FEMA management, the Executive Order, OSHA standards and FEMA’s policies require that you:
  • Provide employees with a workplace free from recognized hazards
  • Comply with the occupational safety and health standards applicable to FEMA operations
  • Comply with all rules, policies and procedures developed by FEMA to protect employees from recognized hazards
Your responsibility for your employee’s health and safety is stated in 29 CFR, Part 1960.9.

CFR

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published by the Executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. It is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation.

Safety and Health Initiatives and Executive Orders

In addition to regulations related to the health and safety of Federal employees, the President of the United States also issues directives outlining the safety and health responsibilities for Managers, Supervisors and Designated Management Representatives through Initiatives and Executive Orders. Click on each link below to learn more about each Initiative/Executive Order.

Executive Order 12196: Occupational Safety and Health Programs for Federal Employees

This Executive Order, Occupational Safety and Health Programs for Federal Employees, specifies responsibilities for the heads of Federal agencies and a requirement for the Secretary of Labor to issue basic program elements for Federal agency safety and health programs in conformance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

Click on this link to view Executive Order 12196.

Presidential Initiative(s)

Building on the basis and expanding the Safety, and Return to Employment (SHARE) initiative signed by President Bush in 2004, the Protecting Our Workers and Ensuring Reemployment (POWER) initiative was signed by President Obama in 2010. Its aim is to improve workplace safety and health, reduce the financial burden of injury on taxpayers, and relieve unnecessary suffering by workers and their families. It expects agencies to collect and analyze data on the causes and consequences of frequent or severe injury and illness in the Federal workplace and prioritize safety and health management programs that have proven effective in the past.

Click on this link to view the official POWER Initiative Memorandum.Click on this link to view your agency’s progress in meeting the SHARE Initiative goals.

Executive Order 13058: Protecting Federal Employees and the Public from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in the Federal Workplace

This Executive Order, Protecting Federal Employees and the Public from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in the Federal Workplace, does exactly what its name states: it protects Federal Government employees and members of the public from exposure to tobacco smoke in the Federal workplace. It bans the smoking of tobacco products in all interior spaces owned, rented, or leased by the Executive branch of the Federal Government, and in front of air intake ducts in any outdoor areas under Executive branch control.

Click on this link to view Executive Order 13058.

Executive Order 13043: Increasing Seat Belt Use in the United States

This Executive Order, Increasing Seat Belt Use in the United States, requires that Federal employees use seat belts while on official business. It also encourages Federal contractors, subcontractors, and grantees to adopt and enforce on-the-job seat-belt-use policies and programs.

Click on this link to view Executive Order 13043.

Executive Order 13513: Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging While Driving

This Executive Order, Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging While Driving, prohibits Federal employees from text messaging when driving a Government Owned Vehicle (GOV), when driving a Personally Owned Vehicle (POV) while on official Government business, or when using electronic equipment supplied by the Government while driving. It also encourages Federal contractors, subcontractors, and recipients and sub-recipients to adopt and enforce policies that ban text messaging while driving company-owned or -rented vehicles or GOV, or while driving a POV on official Government business or when performing any work for or on behalf of the Government.

Click on this link to view Executive Order 13153.

Legislation and Standards

In 1970, Congress passed the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) to assure safe and healthful working conditions for all employees. The OSH Act assigns two main functions to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): setting standards for workplace health and safety and conducting workplace inspections to ensure that employers are complying with the standards, providing a safe and healthful workplace to employees.

Click on this link to view the OSH Act content document.

The health and safety standards set by OSHA fall under Title 29 of the CFR. From this Title, the standards that are applicable to you, as a Federal manager, supervisor or designated management representative, include:

Part 1910 – General Industry Standards

These health and safety standards apply across general industry. OSHA uses the term “general industry” to refer to all industries not included in construction, agriculture or maritime industries. OSHA regulations for general industry activities include standards, directives (instructions for compliance officers), and standard interpretations (official letters of interpretation of the standards).

Click on this link to view the Part 1910 General Industry Standards.

Part 1926 – Construction Industry Standards

The construction industry standards designate the specific health and safety conditions required by any employer who builds, alters or repairs, including residential construction, bridge erection, roadway paving, excavations, and demolitions. These activities may expose FEMA employees to serious hazards, such as falling from rooftops or elevated work surfaces, unguarded machinery, entrapment in excavated areas, being struck by heavy construction equipment, shocks and electrocutions, silica dust from concrete and other building materials, asbestos from damaged insulation, plaster and other building materials.

Click on this link to view the Part 1926 Construction Industry Standards.

Part 1960 – Basic Program Elements for Federal Employees OSHA

This standard contains additional responsibilities for the heads of Federal agencies and a requirement for the Secretary of Labor to issue basic program elements for Federal agency safety and health programs in conformance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

Click on this link to view the Part 1960 Basic Program Elements for Federal Employees OSHA Standards.

Part 1904 – Recordkeeping Requirements

This rule requires employers to record and report work-related fatalities, injuries and illnesses. This rule will be addressed in detail in Lesson 4 of this training.

Click on this link to view Part 1904 Recordkeeping Requirements.

DHS Health and Safety Directives and Forms

As a manager, supervisor or designated management representative, you also need to be aware of the health and safety Directives issued by DHS.

The DHS Directive # 066-01 Safety and Health Programs (Revision # 00) establishes DHS policy, responsibilities, and requirements regarding safety and health programs, including manager, supervisor or designated management representative responsibilities.

Click on this link to view the DHS Directive # 066-01 Safety and Health Programs (Revision # 00).

FEMA Health and Safety Directives

FEMA also issues Health and Safety Directives and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) of which you should be aware.

Directive 066-3-1 FEMA Facilities Management – Safety & Health – Occupational Safety and Health Program is available on the FEMA intranet.

Contact your local safety official for copies of SOPs.

Handling OSHA Compliance Inspections Audio Transcript

Federal OSHA conducts periodic compliance inspections, which are sometimes unannounced. These inspections may be initiated by an employee complaint, an accident that has occurred, external agency referral, or because the facility or site was part of a programmed inspection schedule.

As a manager, supervisor or designated management representative, you should be aware of the exact procedure to follow when an OSHA inspector (Compliance Safety and Health Officer [CSHO]) arrives at any FEMA facility or site.

When an OSHA inspector or representative arrives at any FEMA facility or site, immediately notify the jobsite/facilities senior manager and Collateral Duty Safety Officer (CDSO), Site Safety Manager (SM), or Disaster Safety Officer (DSO).

If the location’s senior manager and/or CDSO/SM/DSO is or are not available, the highest-ranking manager, supervisor or designated management representative who is available shall meet with the inspector and ask him/her to refrain from beginning the inspection for at least 30 minutes until the locations senior manager and CDSO/SM/DSO arrive. CSHOs may be authorized by their supervisor to grant up to 1 hour until the locations senior manager and CDSO/SM/DSO arrive.

In addition, the site location’s senior manager, CDSO/SM/DSO, or highest-ranking manager, supervisor or designated management representative must immediately notify the FEMA locations Safety and Health Official/Professional that a Federal OSHA representative/inspector is on-site conducting an inspection.

Remember that the Safety, Health and Medical Readiness Division provides internal oversight of the safety and health programs for ensuring that FEMA complies with all Federal and local safety and health laws, regulations, and policies within the United States and its territories, and hence needs to be notified regarding OSHA inspections. For detailed information contact your local safety official for a copy of the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP).

Lesson Summary

In this lesson, you learned about the Executive Orders, legislative standards and regulations, and internal directives and policies that govern FEMA’s workplace safety and health program. You also learned about the role of the Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in workplace health and safety on FEMA work sites.

You should now be able to:

  • Identify the applicable laws, regulations, and policies governing FEMA’s workplace safety and health
  • Describe the procedures that a manager, supervisor or designated management representative must follow in the event of an OSHA compliance inspection
In the next lesson, you will learn how to report and process properly the paperwork associated with motor vehicle accidents and injuries/illnesses that were reported by employees occupationally exposed to hazards.

Lesson 4: Accident, Injury or Illness Reporting
Lesson Overview

This lesson provides access to, as well as promotes, the information necessary to understand the reporting process associated with Injury, Illness and Accidents within FEMA. You will learn about manager, supervisor, or designated management representative responsibilities for OSHA’s requirements for recordkeeping of occupational injuries and illnesses.

To achieve a timely response to critical safety and health reporting issues it is necessary for FEMA management representatives to be introduced to, understand and comply with the mandated reporting requirements.

Within this lesson, we will introduce and discuss the various organizational requirements. Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify employee and manager, supervisor, or designated management representative responsibilities in reporting motor vehicle accidents
  • Identify manager, supervisor, or designated management representative responsibilities in reporting occupational injuries and illnesses

Introduction Audio Transcript

As a FEMA manager, supervisor, or designated management representative, YOU are responsible for ensuring that all accidents, injuries and illnesses that occur at your facility or site are reported properly and timely so that the appropriate response, investigations, follow-up and corrective or preventative actions can be initiated effectively.

This lesson provides you the information necessary to understand the reporting process associated with employee-involved accidents, injury, and illness that may occur in FEMA work places and disaster sites.

The basis for the current safety and health reporting requirements are Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Office of Workers’ Compensation Programs, and the General Services Administration regulations and policies.

To achieve a timely response to critical safety and health reporting issues, it is necessary for FEMA managers, supervisors or designated management representatives to be introduced to, understand, and comply with the mandated reporting requirements.

Motor Vehicle Accidents—Awareness and Responsibilities

If your employees are ever involved in a motor vehicle accident involving a Government-owned, rented or privately owned vehicle while on the job, provide them with the following guidelines:
  • Stop immediately, out of the flow of traffic.
  • Notify the police and emergency services, if necessary.
  • Assist any injured persons.
  • Get necessary information, including registration numbers of all vehicles.
  • Whenever there is damage to other vehicles/property, the police must be made aware that the Government is self-insured—do not give out personal insurance information.
  • Record the date, time, and location of the accident.
  • If possible, photograph any damage to the vehicles.
  • Notify your supervisor as soon as you can.

Reporting Motor Vehicle Accidents to FEMA

Employees, managers, supervisors and designated management representatives have certain responsibilities when reporting motor vehicle accidents to FEMA. Click on each link below to learn more about:

Employee Responsibilities

In the event of a motor vehicle accident involving cars, pickups, tractors, tractor trailers, ATVs and forklifts, FEMA employees have to follow these procedures:
  1. Take digital photos of the vehicle(s) involved (if possible).
  2. Fill out Form SF-91: Motor Vehicle Accident Report, regardless of who was at fault.
  3. Submit the following documents along with a completed Form SF-91:
    1. Copy of Police Accident Report, if any
    2. Copy of Rental Agreement if the vehicle or motorized equipment involved in the accident was rented or leased
    3. Copy of the Auto Rental Agency Accident Report (if provided)
  4. If the vehicle or motorized equipment was rented or leased, notify the rental company and report the accident. Keep copies of any accident form or other forms that were filled out for the rental company.
  5. If someone witnessed the accident, ask them to fill out and process Form SF-94: Statement of Witness.
  6. As a federal employee you must NEVER fill out a Form SF-95: Claim for Damage, Injury or Death. This form is for claimants who do not work for the federal government. Make a copy of each of the above documents for your files and submit the copies to the local FEMA Safety and Health Official [e.g., Site Safety Manager, Collateral Duty Safety Officer, or Disaster Safety Officer.]
  7. Once the form is signed by your supervisor, return the completed forms to your local FEMA Safety and Health Official [e.g., Site Safety Manager, Collateral Duty Safety Officer or Disaster Safety Officer.]

Manager, Supervisors or Designated Management Representative Responsibilities

In addition to the employees submitting the forms, the manager, supervisor, or designated management representative must:
  • Review Form SF-91 for accuracy
  • Complete and sign Block 81, 82a, 82b, 83a, 83b and 83c in Section X (Supervisor’s Certification).
  • If a non-FEMA person is injured or killed as a result of an accident involving a FEMA employee, that person may file a claim against FEMA. The person must file a completed Form SF-95 and submit it to FEMA Office of Chief Counsel within two years of the incident.

Reporting Incidents Resulting in Injuries and Illnesses

Employees who sustain injuries or illnesses while on the job MUST report the incident to their managers, supervisors, or designated management representatives.

FEMA uses OSHA Form 301-Injury and Illness Incident Report as the first report of an injury or illness that has occurred in the workplace.

This form must be completed by the Safety Official, in conjunction with the employee and/or the employee’s supervisor, within 7 calendar days of the incident.

The manager, supervisor or designated management representative must notify the site Safety Official once they receive notification of an injury or illness. Employees may get copies of the OSHA 301 form for their records and file electronically at www.ECOMP.gov.

Injury or Illness

An injury or illness is an abnormal condition or disorder. Injuries include cases such as, but not limited to, a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation. Illnesses include both acute and chronic illnesses, such as, but not limited to, a skin disease, respiratory disorder, or poisoning.

OSHA Form 301 – Injury and Illness Incident Report

OSHA Form 301 – Injury and Illness Incident Report is a more detailed record of each recordable injury or illness. This form, like the corresponding entries on OSHA Form 300, must be completed by the Safety Official, in conjunction with the employee and/or the employee’s supervisor, within seven calendar days after the employer learns of the recordable occurrence.

The OSHA 301 form is accessible at www.ECOMP.gov.

Workers’ Compensation for Injuries/Illnesses

Employees who sustain injuries or illnesses while on the job that result in lost work time or medical expenses are entitled to the benefits of the Federal Employees’ Compensation Act (FECA). This program is administered by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of Workers’ Compensation Programs (OWCP).

It is important to understand that FEMA managers, supervisors, or designated management representatives do not determine the eligibility of FECA benefits. All eligibility determinations and decisions regarding compensation benefits are made by OWCP. FEMA is responsible only for reviewing the facts of each case and providing information and recommendations to OWCP for its decision-making.

Occupational Injury/Illness Reporting Forms

FECA has prescribed the following forms for reporting occupational injuries or illnesses sustained in the workplace:
Keep in mind that whenever an employee requests Workers’ Compensation, you are required to complete the agency portion of the appropriate form and sign the form. Your signature does not indicate agreement with the employee’s version of events or approval of the claim. Your signature merely verifies that the employee spoke with you about the incident.

Form CA-1– Federal Employee’s Notice of Traumatic Injury and Claim for Continuation of Pay/Compensation

Form CA-1, Federal Employee’s Notice of Traumatic Injury and Claim for Continuation of Pay/Compensation, is used to report a traumatic injury sustained on the job. A traumatic injury is an injury or wound to the body caused by an external force, such as a fall from height or being struck by a falling or moving object. This form:
  • Should be returned to the supervisor no later than 30 days from the date of injury
  • Expires after 45 calendar days from the date of injury

Form CA-16– Authorization for Examination and Treatment

Form CA-16, Authorization for Examination and Treatment, is used to authorize medical treatment for an employee who has been injured on the job. Some important notes about this form:
  • The supervisor must send, by fax or hand delivery, the completed and signed CA-16 to the medical facility within 4 hours of the medical treatment.
  • The injured employee can be treated for up to 60 days from the date of the signed authorization’s issuance.
  • This form should never be issued for occupational illness claims.
  • A blank CA-16 form may never be provided to the injured or ill employee to complete and/or sign.

Form CA-2– Notice of Occupational Disease and Claim for Compensation

Form CA-2, Notice of Occupational Disease and Claim for Compensation, is used to report an occupational illness, which is a condition produced in the work environment over a period longer than one workday or shift. Keep in mind that:
  • For submitting this form, claimants have up to three years from the date they became aware of the occupational illness, their last exposure to the cause of the illness, or the date when the employer first had knowledge of the occupational illness
  • The supervisor MUST submit the completed Form CA-2 within 3 working days of receipt from the employee.

Manager, Supervisor or Designated Management Representative’s Role in Reporting Occupational Injury/Illness

The manager, supervisor or designated management representative’s role in the process of reporting an employee’s injury is listed below:
  1. Review Form CA-1 or CA-2 for completeness and assist employee, if necessary, in completing it
  2. Complete and sign back of Form CA-1 or CA-2.
    1. If you are in doubt as to whether employee’s condition is related to employment, note it on the form.
    2. Submit Form CA-1 or CA-2 to your local designated FEMA WC liaison, who will work with you to submit it to FEMA’s Workers’ Compensation (WC) group found within Human Resources or an identified contractor of record.
    3. The local FEMA WC officer of record will process the completed forms and submit them to federal OWCP.
    4. A manager, supervisor, or designated management representative MUST submit a completed Form CA-1 or CA-2 to FEMA WC within 3 working days of the date the completed form was received from the injured employee or his/her designated legal representative.
  3. Authorize medical care if needed by completing Form CA-16 within four hours of request. Click on this link to learn more details about submitting Form CA-16.
  4. Advise employee of the right to elect Continuation of Pay (COP), rather than to use leave.
  5. Advise employee of her/his responsibility to submit medical evidence of disability within 10 calendar days or risk termination/denial of COP.

Submitting Form CA-16

This form is a guarantee of payment and may not be filled out and submitted by the employee reporting the injury. FEMA management representatives may refuse to issue Form CA-16 if more than a week has passed since the injury–the need for immediate treatment would have become apparent prior to this time.

Manager’s, Supervisor’s, or Designated Management Representative’s Role in Reporting Fatalities and Catastrophic Accidents (FatCat Incidents)

OSHA regulations require special reporting for catastrophic accidents that result in:
  • the death of any employee from a work-related incident; or
  • the in-patient hospitalization of three or more employees as a result of a work-related incident
This requirement – specified in 29 CFR 1904 E “Reporting Fatality, Injury and Illness Information to the Government” – states that OSHA must be notified within eight (8) hours following such an incident.

As a FEMA manager, supervisor or designated management representative, YOU must orally report any fatality or a multiple hospitalization incident immediately upon learning of the incident to your designated Safety Official.

OSHA Recordkeeping Requirements

FEMA site/location managers, in coordination with the site’s designated safety official are required under OSHA regulations to prepare and maintain OSHA 300 logs of work-related personal injuries and illnesses. These logs provide a basis for a statistical program which produces data that OSHA can measure and use to direct their prevention efforts; enable you and your employees to identify the factors which cause injuries and illnesses in your workplace; and aid you and your employees to take action to improve workplace safety.

The decision tree shown outlines the process for determining if an injury or illness is work-related and meets OSHA’s definition of a “recordable” injury.

Flowchart on deciding whether to record an injury/illness sustained in the workplace. For details, access the narrative summary.

Graphic Description

This flowchart shows the process used in deciding whether to “record” an injury/illness sustained in the workplace on the site OSHA Log.

An illness/injury would be considered “recordable” if:

  • It is work related; and,
  • It meets the general recording criteria or the application to specific cases; and,
  • It is a new case.
If the above conditions are not met, it would not be considered “recordable”.

If the injury/illness is work-related, but is not a new case, the previously recorded injury or illness entry would be updated.

It is important to understand that all accidents, injuries and illnesses must be REPORTED. The site Safety Officer will make the determination of whether or not the incident is “recordable” based on the incident investigation findings.

Examples of Recordable vs. Non-recordable Injuries

As we already learned, employers must “record” injuries and illness that are:
  1. Work-related; and,
  2. Meet certain criteria defined by OSHA.
It is important to understand that ALL accidents, injuries and illnesses must be brought to your attention. Whether an injury or illness is “OSHA recordable” is a determination made by the designated safety official following an investigation of the incident.

As a supervisor, manager or designated management representative, your input into the incident investigation will assist the SHMR Recordkeeping subject matter expert and the localized Safety Officer in determining if the injury or illness is “recordable.”

Examples of Recordable vs. Non-recordable Injuries

The table below lists some examples of recordable and non-recordable injuries. It is not intended to be a complete list.

Recordable Injury Examples Non-Recordable Injury Examples
Electric shock to an employee due to equipment design deficiency, resulting in hospitalization of employee and prescribed time off work Static shock to an employee from brushing against equipment, requiring no treatment or missed work time
A work-related injury which causes the employee to subsequently miss work for a full shift or longer An injury sustained off-duty that causes the employee to subsequently miss work for a full duty shift or longer
A chemical exposure which results in the need for medical treatment beyond first aid A chemical exposure for which a medical examination was done solely to meet surveillance program requirements
Loss of consciousness at work due to heat stress experienced while canvassing a neighborhood to pass out community relations material Loss of consciousness while off duty
An accident caused by contractor operations involving FEMA personnel and resulting in fatalities An accident caused by contractor operations that does not result in injury to FEMA personnel
Any other occupational injury requiring treatment beyond first aid and/or resulting in lost work time An injury that is effectively treated by applying first-aid and doesn’t result in any lost work time

OSHA Recordkeeping Forms

OSHA’s “Recordkeeping and Reporting Occupational Injuries and Illnesses” rule (29 CFR 1904.7) requires that employers maintain a log of injuries and illnesses that have occurred in the workplace, and that employees are informed of those injuries and illnesses. OSHA has prescribed two forms that are used to record and report injuries and illnesses in the workplace:

OSHA Form 300 – Log of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses

OSHA Form 300 – Log of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses is used to record every “recordable” occupational injury or illness within six working days after the employer learns of the occurrence. It also provides the mechanism for reporting the required annual summary of occupational illnesses and injuries.

OSHA Form 300A – Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses

OSHA Form 300A – Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses provides an annual summary of work-related injuries in a workplace.
As a manager, supervisor, or designated management representative, it is your responsibility to ensure that the Safety Official is provided with complete information to ensure that accurate records of significant events “recordable” are documented.

Processing and Posting OSHA Recordkeeping Forms

The OSHA recordkeeping forms need to be processed and posted each year. Click on each link below to learn more about what you, as a manager, supervisor or designated management representative, need to do to ensure that the forms are completed within the timeframes and dates listed below.

Quarterly (on the 15th of the month)

 

The local Safety Official (CDSO, DSO, or Safety Professional) is required to submit the OSHA 300 log to Headquarters on a quarterly basis, by the 15th of January, April, July and October.

November 1 – January 31

Review the OSHA 300 Log and 300A Summary with the Safety Official to verify that entries are complete and accurate. Then the senior site/location FEMA Executive must certify the annual summary of injuries and illnesses recorded on OSHA Form 300A. If at a disaster the localized Disaster Safety Officer (DSO) will provide the summary to the Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO), who must certify the summary as accurate by signing the summary as the “Company Executive. If the DSO was relieved by the FCO and another injury or illness needs to be recorded and/or the 300 Log certified it is the responsibility of the FCO to complete the forms and submit them to the appropriate Regional Safety Official.

Once the OSHA 300A is completed, copies must be sent to the Recordkeeping Subject Matter Expert within SHMR upon completion.

 

February 1

The “certified” copy of the OSHA Form 300A summary must be posted where notices are customarily posted by February 1.

April 30

 

After April 30, the OSHA Form 300A can be taken down.

For disaster response operations

OPERATIONAL DISASTERS: The DSO will maintain the 300 Log and 300A Summary according to the 29 CFR 1904 requirements. The 300A Summary will be certified by the FCO and posted locally in an appropriate location.

CLOSED DISASTERS: The DSO must send the OSHA 300 log and completed OSHA 300A to the Regional safety official who will post the completed 300A Summary within the regional office.

DSO RELIEVED PRIOR TO FULL DISASTER CLOSURE: The FCO assumes the responsibility to ensure that the any new documents are forwarded to the Regional safety official for processing.

Lesson Summary

This lesson reviewed the importance of properly processing the paperwork associated with motor vehicle accidents and processing, reporting, and recording injuries and illnesses reported by employees who were injured or exposed to hazards on the job. You learned about your responsibilities as a manager, supervisor, or designated management representative for OSHA’s requirements for recordkeeping of occupational injuries and illnesses.

You should now be able to:

  • Identify employee and manager, supervisor, or designated management representative responsibilities in reporting motor vehicle accidents
  • Identify manager, supervisor, or designated management representative responsibilities in reporting occupational injuries and illnesses
You have now completed all lessons.